Heat exchanger fouling
Biowater units increases heat transfer rate by 10-15%
Pipe and heat exchanger fouling is a commonly occurring problem in all water carrying systems. The result is a insulating layer that reduce the overall heat transfer rate.
The surface of water carrying systems develops a layer of biofilm, scaling and chemical reactions. This can happen for a variety of reasons. But as a result, the heat transfer coefficient at the surface is drastically reduced, since the heat conducting wall metal is not in contact with the fluids any more. Instead, the wall is separated from fluid by a layer of 'fouling'. Fouling material prevents efficient heat transfer and reduces the efficiency of heat exchangers.
What can Biowater units do?
Biowater containing millions of nanobubbles creates a microscopic barrier on the coolers inner surface, this increases the heat transfer rate and creates a film that deposits do not attache to.
Biofilm formation in heat exchangers have strong negative impacts on process efficiency and is, therefore, considered a problematic challenge faced in numerous industrial sites. The dependence of industrial processes to heat exchangers makes the interruption of operation very difficult and, in many cases, requires continuous operation for several years before cleaning or replacement of parts can be performed. Despite the use of biocides and dispersants, biofilms still develop over long periods of time and considerably reduce heat transfer efficiency. Additionally, they can serve as a protective habitat for pathogenic bacteria or bacteria involved in microbially induced corrosion, causing irreversible damage to the equipment. These detrimental consequences strongly affect the capital and operational costs of the heat exchange installations.
Biofilm resistance to heat transfer thermal conductivity have been observed to 0,6 to 1,6 W/mK, even a 0,1-0,2 mm layer reduces a copper cooler efficiency 27 to 54 times. A thin layer like this is difficult to see even when the cooler is opened.
Filters and water treatment units
All parts of a water system is object for fouling like pipes, filters, water heaters and RO systems. An additional issue is decreased flow resulting in increased power usage.
Fouling of membranes can create quite an issue for water operators. RO, microfiltration, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration are all membrane-based water treatment technologies and therefore are prone to fouling. Membrane fouling will at the very least decrease production and use more energy and can even lead to much more costly equipment replacements.